In the previous lesson, we looked at the basic way of conjugating the verbs in the dictionary form into the present tense form. Do you remember how?
- Verb stems ending with vowels ㅗ[o] or ㅏ[a] are followed by 아요[a-yo].
- Verb stems ending with vowels OTHER THAN ㅗ or ㅏ are followed by 어요[eo-yo].
- Verb stem 하 is followed by 여요[yeo-yo].
Now it’s time to learn how to change verbs into the past tense.
If you understand how to change verbs into the present tense, understanding how to change them into the past tense is just as easy.
A similar rule is applied to making past tense sentences,
and the endings are:
You can add those to the verb stems, or you can think of it as just replacing the “요” at the end
of present tense sentences with -ㅆ어요 [ss-eo-yo].
Verb stems ending with vowels ㅗ[o] or ㅏ[a] are followed by 았어요[a-sseo-yo].
Verb stems ending with vowels other than ㅗ or ㅏare followed by 었어요[eo-sseo-yo].
Verb stem 하 is followed by 였어요[yeo-sse-yo].
Let’s take a look at some examples.
- 사다[sa-da] = to buy
Verb stem = 사 [sa]
** You drop the final 다 [da] from any verb and you get the verb stem.
= 사 + 았어요 [sa + a-sseo-yo]
= I bought / you bought / she bought / he bought / they bought / etc.
- 오다[o-da] = to come
Verb stem = 오 [o]
= 오 + 았어요 [o + a-sseo-yo]
= I came / you came / he came / they came / she came / we came / etc.
- 적다[ jeok-da] = to write down
Verb stem = 적 [ jeok]
= 적 + 었어요 [ jeok + eo-sseo-yo]
= 적었어요[ jeo-geo-sseo-yo]
= I wrote / you wrote / he wrote / she wrote / they wrote / we wrote / etc.
- 하다[ha-da] = to do
Verb stem = 하 [ha]
= 하 + 였어요 [ha + yeo-sseo+yo]
= I did / you did / he did / they did / etc.
More sample verbs in the present tense and the past tense
1. 먹다[meok-da] (Verb stem = 먹 [meok]) = to eat
Present Tense: 먹어요[meo-geo-yo]
Past Tense: 먹었어요[meo-geo-sseo-yo]
2. 잡다[ jap-da] (Verb stem = 잡 [ jap]) = to catch
Present Tense: 잡아요[ ja-ba-yo]
Past Tense: 잡았어요[ ja-ba-sseo-yo]
3. 팔다[pal-da] (Verb stem = 팔 [pal]) = to sell
Present Tense: 팔아요[pa-ra-yo]
Past Tense: 팔았어요[pa-ra-sseo-yo]
4. 놀다[nol-da] (Verb stem = 놀 [nol]) = to play, to hang out
Present Tense: 놀아요[no-ra-yo]
Past Tense: 놀았어요[no-ra-sseo-yo]
5. 쓰다[sseu-da] (Verb stem = 쓰 [sseu]) = to write, to use
Present Tense: 써요[sseo-yo] (NOT 쓰어요)
Past Tense: 썼어요[sseo-sseo-yo]
6. 기다리다[gi-da-ri-da] (Verb stem = 기다리 [gi-da-ri]) = to wait
Present Tense: 기다려요[gi-da-ryeo-yo] (NOT 기다리어요)
Past Tense: 기다렸어요[gi-da-ryeo-sseo-yo]
7. 이상하다[i-sang-ha-da] (Verb stem = 이상하 [i-sang-ha]) = to be strange
Present Tense: 이상해요[i-sang-hae-yo) (NOT 이상하여요)
Past Tense: 이상했어요[i-sang-hae-sseo-yo]
8. 멋있다[meo-sit-da] (Verb stem = 멋있 [meo-sit]) = to be cool, to be awesome
Present Tense: 멋있어요[meo-si-sseo-yo]
Past Tense: 멋있었어요[meo-si-sseo-sseo-yo]